10 Transhumanism – Part 1

Humanity as we know it is being fundamentally altered. This is the conclusion of Dr. Leon Kass in his book Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenges of Bioethics. Dr. Kass is a bioethicist who served as Chairman of the President’s Council on Bioethics between 2001 and 2005. This was a council which, according to former President George H.W. Bush Jr.’s Executive Order 13237, was established to “advise the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.”[1] Dr. Leon Kass writes:

Human nature itself lies on the operating table, ready for alteration, for eugenic and neuropsychic “enhancement,” for wholesale redesign. In leading laboratories, academic and industrial, new creators are confidently amassing their powers and quietly honing their skills, while on the street their evangelists are zealously prophesying a posthuman future. For anyone who cares about preserving our humanity, the time has come to pay attention.[2]


These evangelists, to which Dr. Kass refers, are commonly known as “transhumanists.” Transhumanism is a sub-category of “post-humanism,” meaning “after humanism,” or “beyond humanism.”*[3]*[4][5] “By taking humanism further, transhumanism can be defined as ‘ultra-humanism.’”[6] It is an abbreviated way of referencing “that which transcends humanity.” According to the Oxford Dictionaries, “transhumanism” is “the belief or theory that the human race can evolve beyond its current physical and mental limitations, especially by means of science and technology.”[7] A more precise definition of “transhumanism” is provided by Humanity+ (formerly the World Transhumanist Association):

  • (1) The intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally improving the human condition through applied reason, especially by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.
  • (2) The study of the ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to overcome fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies.[8]


It is important to realize that not all transhumanists belong to the 21st century. Authors such as Julian Huxley, Aldous Huxley, J.B.S. Haldane, Irving John Good, Bertrand Russell, Teilhard de Chardin, F.M. Esfandiary, Abraham Maslow, and H.G. Wells addressed the scientific and philosophical issues of transhumanism 50 years ago. Even the renowned theologians C.S. Lewis and Dr. A.W. Tozer addressed the implications of transhumanism in their writings. Today, some of the most well-known and influential transhumanists include doctors Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Hugo de Garis, James Hughes, Aubrey de Grey, Kevin Warwick, and Max More.


“Transhumanism” is today used as an umbrella title to refer to mankind’s efforts to use technology and genetic engineering to augment itself in such a way as to transcend the ordinary limitations of humanity in an effort to become “god-like.” It promises the realization of Satan’s original promises to mankind in Genesis 3:4–5, “You will not surely die,” and “You will be like God.”


Transhumanists look forward to a point in time that they call “the technological singularity,” or simply “the singularity.” This is the moment when man transcends himself and becomes a new creation. According to the website designed for Dr. Ray Kurzweil’s book The Singularity is Near, “The Singularity is an era in which our intelligence will become increasingly nonbiological and trillions of times more powerful than it is today—the dawning of a new civilization that will enable us to transcend our biological limitations and amplify our creativity.”[9] In the documentary Transcendent Man, Dr. Kurzweil also says, “Singularity is a future period in which technological change will be so rapid, and its impact so profound, that every aspect of human life will be irreversibly transformed.”[10]


To be perfectly honest, there is no standard definition of the term “singularity” among transhumanists. The Singularity Symposium cites Wicktionary to define “singularity” as:

1. the state of being singular, distinct, peculiar, uncommon or unusual

2. a point where all parallel lines meet

3. a point where a measured variable reaches unmeasurable or infinite value

4. (mathematics) the value or range of values of a function for which a derivative does not exist

5. (physics) a point or region in spacetime in which gravitational forces cause matter to have an infinite density; associated with Black Holes[11]


When applied to technology, this term is used to refer to a moment in time when technology advances at such a rapid pace that there is no longer any ability to measure or predict these changes using standard models. This is why co-founder of Wired Magazine, Kevin Kelly, says that the singularity is the point at which “all the change in the last million years will be superseded by the change in the next five minutes.”[12] Ethernet co-inventor, Dr. Robert Metcalfe, says, “You know, the word singularity is a mathematical word. … The singularity is sort of where the model breaks down.”[13] Similarly, Dr. James Martin, a British information technology consultant, leading futurist, computer scientist, and Pulitzer Prize-winning author, defined the technological singularity as “a break in human evolution that will be caused by the staggering speed of technological evolution.”[14]


Tom Abate, a technology reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle, says, “The singularity is the point at which machine intelligence begins to amend itself—improve itself.”[15] Likewise, Dr. Kevin Warwick, a professor of cybernetics who is known as the human cyborg, says, “Machine intelligence improves, improves, improves, until we get to a point where—well it assumes control.”[16] Also, Dr. Jon von Neumann, a mathematical genius, consultant, and university professor who is best remembered for his involvement in the Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb projects, writes that the singularity is the moment beyond which, “technological progress will become incomprehensively rapid and complicated.”[17]


At a meeting of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence in 1982, professor of mathematics, computer scientist, and Hugo Award-winning science fiction writer, Dr. Vernor Vinge, first introduced the term “singularity” as a means of describing Dr. Irving John Good’s idea of an intelligence explosion. In 1965, the British mathematician, Dr. Irving John Good, wrote about the possibility that machines would eventually surpass human intelligence, saying:

Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an “intelligence explosion,” and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make … It is more probable than not that, within the twentieth century, an ultraintelligent machine will be built …[18]


Clearly, an ultra-intelligent machine was not created within the 20th century. Nevertheless, Dr. Good may not have been terribly far off in his predictions. Today, a vast number of scientists are convinced that an ultra-intelligent machine will be created within the 21st century, with many claiming the possibility that it may be created within the next few decades. In his 1993 article titled “The Coming Technological Singularity,” Dr. Vernor Vinge adjusted Dr. Good’s timeline, writing, “Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly thereafter, the human era will be ended.”[19] If Dr. Vinge is correct in his prediction, then superhuman intelligence may be created within the next ten years.


It is believed that the singularity will allow man to transcend himself and enter into the era of the “post-human.”*[20] The efforts to produce this singularity generally fall within two major fields of science. The first is technological. The technological singularity seeks to merge man and machine to create a “post-human.” The second is genetic. The genetic singularity seeks to alter man’s genes and DNA to create a “post-human.” In either case, the end goal is the creation of a “post-human,” using advanced science.


It is generally acknowledged that the realization of the transhumanist’s vision will result in a human which has been fundamentally altered to the extent that its very humanity is called into question.*[21] The assumption is that these changes will transform humans into a new species. At the very least, life as we have always understood it will be radically transformed. Being uncertain of what this will entail, transhumanist philosophers have applied the title “post,” meaning “next” or “what comes after,” to humanity.


Technology is increasing at an exponential rate.*[22] In 1965, Dr. Gordon Moore observed a technological trend which has come to be known as Moore’s Law. Although it bears the title “law,” it is not a true scientific law. Rather, it is merely an observation which has remained consistent for over a century. Moore’s Law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. This has held true since 1890 when hand-cranked calculators were used.[23] In 2005, Intel announced its expectation that this trend will continue until at least 2015 or 2020.[24] However, the 2010 update to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors predicted a deceleration of this trend beginning at the end of 2013, after which time transistor counts and densities are expected to double only every 3 years.[25]


Technological projections based upon the continuation of Moore’s Law have led some scientists to speculate that a technological singularity may be reached as early as the next few decades. However, there are other scientists who believe that this rate of growth cannot continue indefinitely. Professor of theoretical physics, futurist, and host of the TV show Sci Fi Science: Physics of the Impossible, Dr. Michio Kaku has said:

Well, can this [Moore’s Law] go on forever? And the answer is no because eventually physics takes over and that is, physics says that silicon is unstable at the molecular level. Transistors get so small, so powerful and they generate so much heat that the silicon chip melts and electrons leak out because of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. You don’t know where the electron is anymore. Therefore, we physicists are looking for replacements for silicon. The post-silicon era will be about 10 to 15 years in the future. … So we physicists are looking at optical computers, quantum computers, DNA computers, protein computers, all sorts of different kinds of architecture down to the molecular, down to the atomic, down to the microscopic realm, but none of them are ready for primetime yet.[26]


At present, there is no stable alternative to standard silicon-based computers. Nevertheless, serious efforts are being made to change this. In 2005:

Tom Theis, the director of physical sciences at IBM, said he knows of no fewer than 20 ideas from credible sources for replacing silicon memory chips. “It is quite difficult to figure out a long-term winner,” he said. “There is nothing that is an obvious replacement for a silicon transistor.”[27]

In 2013, Google’s Director of Engineering, Dr. Hartmut Neven, posted an announcement that Google will be developing a research lab which utilizes quantum computers:

“So today we’re launching the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab. NASA’s Ames Research Center will host the lab, which will house a quantum computer from D-Wave Systems, and the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) will invite researchers from around the world to share time on it. Our goal: to study how quantum computing might advance machine learning.”[28]

Also, according to a 2012 PC Magazine article title “IBM Says It’s ‘On the Cusp’ of Building a Quantum Computer”:

The IBM researchers said they have established three new records “for retaining the integrity of quantum mechanical properties in quantum bits, or qubits, and reducing errors in elementary computations.” Those advances, presented at this week’s annual American Physical Society meeting, get the team “close to the minimum requirements for a full-scale quantum computing system as determined by the world-wide research community.”[29]


Even the United States Department of Defense has announced significant breakthroughs in quantum computing. According to a 2014 The Atlantic article titled “The U.S. Army Says It Can Teleport Quantum Data Now, Too”:

A team at the lab’s Adelphi, Maryland, facility says it has developed a prototype information teleportation network system based on quantum teleportation technology. The technology can be used, the Defense Department says, to transmit images securely, either over fiber optics or through space—that is, teleportation in which data is transmitted wirelessly.[30]


Furthermore, according to a 2012 computerworld.com article titled “Harvard stores 70 billion books using DNA: Research team stores 5.5 petabits, or 1 million gigabits per cubic millimeter in DNA storage medium,” “‘The total world’s information, which is 1.8 zettabytes, [could be stored] in about four grams of DNA,’ said Sriram Kosuri, a senior scientist at the Wyss Institute and senior author of the paper, in a video presentation.”[31]


Not only is the computing power of technology exponentially increasing, but science is beginning to unlock the secrets of the brain. Projects such as the Human Brain Project, which is funded in part by the European Union, and the Brain Initiative, which is funded in part by the United States government, are attempting to map the human brain. Many are comparing the potential ramifications of this project to the human genome mapping project of the 1990’s. Already portions of the brain have been digitally reconstructed, and the common rhetoric promises that within the next couple of decades, the neural network of the entire human brain may be fully understood and recreated digitally.*[32] It is believed that this would allow for the creation of computers which could process information intelligently, as a human would. Author of How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed, Dr. Ray Kurzweil, has said:

I think it’s a conservative estimate to say at this exponential pace, we’re going to understand how our brains work within twenty years. We will have this tool kit of how human intelligence works. And we will be able to create similar systems that work just as well as the human brain or even better.[33]


Already, research into the human brain has led to the development of more advanced computer processing methods. IBM has “released computer chips that use a network of ‘neurosynaptic cores’ to manage information in a way that resembles the functioning of neurons in a brain.”[34] Also, IBM has developed an entirely new computer architecture called TrueNorth. A 2013 MIT Technology Review article titled “IBM Scientists Show Blueprints for Brainlike Computing: IBM researchers unveil True North, a new computer architecture that imitates how a brain works” reports, “TrueNorth stores and processes information in a distributed, parallel way, like the neurons and synapses in a brain.”[35]


Despite these significant advances, scientists have only just begun to understand the brain. To place the magnitude of this project into perspective, Japanese and German scientists conducted the largest computer simulation ever run. According to a 2013 CNet article titled, “Fujitsu supercomputer simulates 1 second of brain activity”:

The simulation involved 1.73 billion virtual nerve cells connected by 10.4 trillion synapses and was run on Japan’s K computer, which was ranked the fastest in the world in 2011. It took the Fujitsu-built K about 40 minutes to complete a simulation of one second of neuronal network activity in real time, …[36]

The K computer:

[H]as a rated performance of 10.51 petaflops per second using 705,024 SPARC64 processing cores. “If petascale computers like the K computer are capable of representing 1 percent of the network of a human brain today, then we know that simulating the whole brain at the level of the individual nerve cell and its synapses will be possible with exascale computers hopefully available within the next decade,” Markus Diesmann of the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine at Germany’s Forschungszentrum Julich said in the release. An exascale computer is a machine capable of calculating a quintillion floating-point operations per second, a thousandfold increase over basic petascale speeds. Some researchers have speculated that exascale computing may be achieved by 2020, but others disagree.[37]


A key threshold to accomplishing the technological singularity is the Turing Test. This is a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to—or indistinguishable from—that of an actual human. The Turing Test was originally introduced in 1950 by Dr. Alan Turing to determine whether machines are capable of thinking. During a question and answer session at Google’s Big Tent Event in 2013, Google CEO, Eric Schmidt, predicted that Google will be capable of developing artificial intelligence for its programs which could pass the Turing Test within the next 5 – 10 years.[38]


Dr. Hugo de Garis, formerly the world’s leading artificial brain architect, believes that if advanced computing can be perfected—such as quantum computing or reversible computing—and if Moore’s Law can be sustained until 2020, then computers could conceivably become a trillion trillion times more powerful than the human brain. He concludes that the computing power of the human brain is roughly 10 to the 16th power (1016) whereas computers could have a computing power of 10 to the 40th power (1040).[39]


Dr. de Garis is ultimately semi-pessimistic regarding the promise that technology truly offers mankind. In his book The Artilect War: Cosmists vs. Terrans, A Bitter Controversy Concerning Whether Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines, Dr. Hugo de Garis writes:

I believe that the 21st century will be dominated by the question as to whether humanity should or should not build artilects, i.e. machines of godlike intelligence, trillions of trillions of times above the human level. I see humanity splitting into two major political groups, which in time will become increasingly bitterly opposed, as the artilect issue becomes more real and less science fiction like.

The human group in favor of building artilects, I label the “Cosmists,” based on the word “cosmos” (the universe), which reflects their perspective on the question. To Cosmists, building artilects will be like a religion; the destiny of the human species; something truly magnificent and worthy of worship; something to dedicate one’s life and energy to help achieve. To the Cosmists, not building the artilects, not creating the next higher form of evolution, thus freezing the state of evolution at the puny human level, would be a “cosmic tragedy.” The Cosmists will be bitterly opposed to any attempt to stop the rise of the 21st century artilect.

The second group, opposed to the building of artilects, I label the “Terrans,” based on the word “terra” (the Earth) which reflects their inward looking, non-cosmic, perspective. The Terrans, I strongly suspect, will argue that allowing the Cosmists to build their artilects (in a highly advanced form) implies accepting the risk, that one day, the artilects might decide, for whatever reason, that the human species is a pest. Since the artilects would be so vastly superior to human beings in intelligence, it would be easy for the artilects to exterminate the human species if they so decided. … When push comes to shove, if the Terrans see that the Cosmists are truly serious about building artilects in an advanced state, then to preserve the survival of the human species, the Terrans will exterminate the Cosmists. Killing a few million Cosmists will be considered justifiable by the Terrans for the sake of preserving the survival of the whole human species, i.e. billions of people. … [T]he artilect issue (i.e. should artilects be built or not) will heat up in the 21st century to such an extent, that it is almost certain it will lead to a major war between the Terrans and the Cosmists in the second half of this new century. This conflict will take place with 21st century weaponry. If one extrapolates up the graph of the number of deaths in major wars from the beginning of the 19th century, one arrives at the depressing figure of billions, what I call “gigadeath.”

But the population of the Earth is only several billion people, so we arrive at the tragic conclusion that to avoid the risk of the total annihilation of the human species by the artilects, humanity goes to war against itself and kills itself off (or almost).

This “Artilect War” as I call it, will be the most passionate in history, because the stake has never been so high, namely the survival of the whole human race. It will be waged with 21st century weapons and hence the casualty figures will be of 21st century grandeur.[40]


Dr. de Garis says that he lays awake at night trying unsuccessfully to imagine a scenario which does not end in his research facilitating the near or total annihilation of the human race. He is even terrorized by vivid nightmares in which he envisions his creations killing humanity.*[41] Nevertheless, the prospect of building god-like machines is irresistible to him because, as he writes, “In my heart I’m a Cosmist …” At one point, Dr. de Garis questioned, “As a brain builder myself, am I prepared to risk the extinction of the human species for the sake of building an artilect? Because that’s what it comes down to.” In answer to this, he inhaled deeply and declared, “Yep!”[42]


Realistically, mankind will likely be unable to resist the temptation to merge itself with the artilecs, despite the fact that this act would essentially kill mankind’s humanity. Nevertheless, Dr. Hugo de Garis writes that this will not prevent the inevitable conflict between those who embrace this technology and those who do not:

In passing, I should mention that there are some people who feel that the whole Cosmist/Terran conflict can be avoided by having human beings themselves become artilects by adding components to their heads etc to become “cyborgs” (cybernetic organisms, i.e. part human, part machine). Personally I find such arguments naïve, since they would only work if the whole of humanity made the transition from human to artilect at the same rate, which obviously is not going to happen.

There is more potential computing capacity in a [nano-teched computer the size of a] grain of sugar than there is in the human brain by a factor of trillions. Incorporating such a grain into the human brain would simply make the human cyborg an “artilect in human disguise” as seen from the perspective of a Terran. The Terrans would hate the cyborgs with as much venom as they would the artilects and would be motivated to destroy both. Having a human exterior would not make the cyborgs any less threatening to the Terrans.

Let me try to express this Terran revulsion against the cyborgs in an even more graphic way that may have a stronger appeal to women than to men. Take the case of a young mother who has just given birth. She decides to convert her baby into a cyborg, by adding the “grain of sugar” to her baby’s brain, thus transforming her baby into a human faced artilect. Her “baby” will now spend only about a trillionth of its mental capacity thinking human thoughts, and the rest of its brain capacity (i.e. 99.9999999999% of it) will be used for thinking artilect thoughts (whatever they are). In effect, the mother has “killed” her baby because it is no longer human. It is an “artilect in human disguise” and totally alien to her.

Thus to me, the cyborg option will not avoid the Cosmist/Terran conflict. If anything, it will probably only worsen it, because it will increase the level of paranoia of the Terrans when they cannot distinguish easily a cyborg from a human at a distance.[43]


Humans who merge themselves with this technology will so far exceed ordinary human limitations that their new capabilities cannot be fathomed with the unaided human mind. Dr. de Garis writes:

It is not exaggerating to say that there is quite a close analogy between an artilect trying to communicate with a human being, and a human being trying to communicate with a rock.

To make another analogy, consider your feelings towards a mosquito as it lands on the skin of your forearm. When you swat it, do you stop to consider that the creature you just killed is a miracle of nano-technological engineering, that scientists of the 20th century had absolutely no way of building.[44]


In contrast to Dr. Hugo de Garis’ pessimism, Dr. Ray Kurzweil is optimistic that technology will unlock the true potential within man and will almost inevitably lead to a paradise scenario on earth. The road to this paradise scenario may contain some serious tragedies and trials, but ultimately mankind will overcome these difficulties. Dr. Ray Kurzweil is probably the most well-known and influential proponent of the technological singularity today. He belongs to the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame and has received America’s highest honor in technology—the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. He is a futurist who accurately predicted the technological state of the world decades in advance. Dr. Kurzweil is a co-founder of the Singularity Institute, now known as the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, and is currently Director of Engineering at Google where he is working on developing artificial intelligence. He has authored such best-selling books as The Age of Spiritual Machines, The Singularity is Near, and How to Create A Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed.


Dr. Kurzweil predicts that the singularity will occur by the year 2045. In his book The Singularity Is Near, Dr. Kurzweil writes:

We are now in the early stages of this transition. The acceleration of paradigm shift (the rate at which we change fundamental technical approaches) as well as the exponential growth of the capacity of information technology are both beginning to reach the “knee of the curve,” which is the stage at which an exponential trend becomes noticeable. Shortly after this stage, the trend becomes explosive. Before the middle of this century, the growth rates of our technology—which will be indistinguishable from ourselves—will be so steep as to appear essentially vertical….That, at least, will be the perspective of unenhanced biological humanity.

The Singularity will represent the culmination of the merger of our biological thinking and existence with our technology, resulting in a world that is still human but that transcends our biological roots. There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine, or between physical and virtual reality.”[45]


Dr. Kurzweil predicts that by the mid-2020’s, man will have reverse engineered the human brain, and by the year 2029, machines will have passed the Turing Test. Recall that this is the point when artificial intelligence and human intelligence become indistinguishable. He also predicts that by the year 2045, man will be capable of immortality via technology. He believes that mankind will have augmented the human body by incorporating technology into the body in small, incremental steps until the concept of human cyborgs is ordinary. Computers will be the size of blood cells and will flow throughout our bodies.[46] Consequently, we will be continually connected to the internet and to databases such as the modern “Cloud” and “Sky Drive.” We will be able to access and retrieve any information from the internet immediately with it being directly downloaded into our brains.[47] He also predicts that by the year 2045, human consciousness can be downloaded into non-biological entities, thus allowing the consciousness of an individual to live indefinitely.[48]


In 2011, the 2045 Strategic Social Initiative was founded by Dmitry Itskov with the goal of realizing Dr. Ray Kurzweil’s vision of the singularity occurring by the year 2045. In fact, reporting on the 2045 Initiative, Time Magazine published an article in 2011 with the provocative title “2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal.”[49] According to the 2045 Initiative’s official website:

The “2045” team is working towards creating an international research center where leading scientists will be engaged in research and development in the fields of anthropomorphic robotics, living systems modeling and brain and consciousness modeling with the goal of transferring one’s individual consciousness to an artificial carrier and achieving cybernetic immortality.[50]

This is not a fringe organization dabbling in theoretical science. The 2045 Initiative has received international support, including that of the United Nations. It has also received serious financial backing.


The 2045 Initiative’s primary project is known as the “2045 Avatar Project.” The project’s ultimate goal is the creation of a hologram-like avatar which is controlled by the digital copy of an individual’s human brain. If this can be accomplished, then man can continue to live after his physical body has perished. Moreover, he will exist in both the digital and physical world, being capable of interacting with both worlds. Once he has reached a holographic-like state of being which utilizes controlled matter, he will never again need to concern himself with the deficiencies and needs inherent to physical human bodies. It is even conceivable that multiple copies of a particularly useful individual’s brain may be generated and granted appropriate avatars.


Transhumanists deny the existence of the soul. They equate the soul with consciousness. In other words, what we term the soul is merely the subjective processing of the mind.[51] Using the Turing Test as their standard, transhumanists have quantified this. As such, transhumanists believe that the soul, being nothing more than the conscious mind, is transferable and even reproducible.


The 2045 Avatar Project milestones are listed on the website alongside a graphic which bears a striking similarity to the image of Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel chapter 2:

  • “Avatar A, 2015 – 2020: A robotic copy of a human body remotely controlled via BCI” (brain-computer interface):

The emergence and widespread use of affordable android “avatars” controlled by a “brain-computer” interface. Coupled with related technologies “avatars” will give people a number of new features: ability to work in dangerous environments, perform rescue operations, travel in extreme situations etc. Avatar components will be used in medicine for the rehabilitation of fully or partially disabled patients giving them prosthetic limbs or recover lost senses.[52][53]

  • “Avatar B, 2020 – 2025: An avatar in which a human brain is transplanted at the end of one’s life.”[54]

Creation of an autonomous life-support system for the human brain linked to a robot, “avatar”, will save people whose body is completely worn out or irreversibly damaged. Any patient with an intact brain will be able to return to a fully functioning bodily life. Such technologies will greatly enlarge the possibility of hybrid bio-electronic devices, thus creating a new IT revolution and will make all kinds of superimpositions of electronic and biological systems possible.[55]*[56]*[57]*[58]

  • “Avatar C, 2030 – 2035: An avatar with an artificial brain in which a human personality is transferred at the end of one’s life.”[59]

Creation of a computer model of the brain and human consciousness with the subsequent development of means to transfer individual consciousness onto an artificial carrier. This development will profoundly change the world, it will not only give everyone the possibility of cybernetic immortality but will also create a friendly artificial intelligence, expand human capabilities and provide opportunities for ordinary people to restore or modify their own brain multiple times. The final result at this stage can be a real revolution in the understanding of human nature that will completely change the human and technical prospects for humanity.[60]

  • “Avatar D, 2040 – 2045: A hologram-like avatar.”[61]

This is the time when substance-independent minds will receive new bodies with capacities far exceeding those of ordinary humans. A new era for humanity will arrive! Changes will occur in all spheres of human activity – energy generation, transportation, politics, medicine, psychology, sciences, and so on.

Today it is hard to imagine a future when bodies consisting of nanorobots will become affordable and capable of taking any form. It is also hard to imagine body holograms featuring controlled matter. One thing is clear however: humanity, for the first time in its history, will make a fully managed evolutionary transition and eventually become a new species. Moreover, prerequisites for a large-scale expansion into outer space will be created as well.[62]


Difficult as it may be to imagine the future as envisioned by the 2045 Initiative, we are already witnessing this future unfold on the silver screen. Hollywood has portrayed elements of this future in a myriad of films. In 2009, Hollywood introduced the general populace to the term “avatar.” The word “avatar” originates in Hindu mythology and refers to an incarnated god.[63] The concept behind an avatar is that it is a shell, or an empty figure, which can be indwelt by another being or consciousness.


In 2009, the blockbuster movie Avatar[64] portrayed a paralyzed soldier who, when connected to the proper machinery, controls an alien body as if it were native to him. At the end of the movie, his consciousness is permanently transferred from his natural human body to the superior avatar body. Other 2009 movies include Gamer[65] which presented a world in which prison inmates are implanted with microchips that allow another individual to control their every move. Using a system reminiscent of Xbox Kinect, users move their bodies while watching live video footage to control other human beings in life or death gladiatorial competitions.  Additionally, Surrogates[66] depicted a world in which humans are afraid to interact with the real world apart from their avatars. Continually attached to machines in their bedrooms, users control robots to operate in the real world as well as digital avatars to interact within the internet. The official movie trailer includes a robotic voice which explains:

Robotic human surrogates combine the durability of a machine with the grace and beauty of the human body. With most people living their lives through their surrogate selves, our world has become a safer place. Take a seat in your stim-chair, and just with the power of your mind, you can control your surrogate and send it out into the real world. You can finally live the life you’ve always dreamt of without any risk or danger to yourself.[67]


The avatars depicted in movies during 2009 correspond with the 2045 Initiative’s early milestones. In 2013, the movie Superman Man of Steel[68] portrayed the 2045 Initiative’s ultimate goal. In a world defined by nanobots and advanced technology, Superman’s father downloads his consciousness onto what is essentially a crystal flash drive. Later, Superman unknowingly uploads his father’s consciousness into a space ship’s computer mainframe. This allows his father to appear as a holographic image, complete with the original consciousness and memories of Superman’s biological father. This hologram is capable of controlling any electronic device via the computer mainframe.


Most striking of all is the 2014 movie Transcendence.[69] This movie unabashedly pictured the singularity in all its glory. After Dr. Will Caster’s consciousness is transferred to a computer, he begins to exponentially advance the world’s technological breakthroughs. By the end of the movie, he has used nano-technology to recreate his body, thus portraying the 2045 Initiative’s final avatar milestone.


Hollywood is often a portent of the future. The science fiction of Hollywood in one generation is frequently realized in succeeding generations.*[70] Given that today’s leading scientists are already speaking as if avatars and cyborgs are inevitable, it is not difficult to believe that there may be less fiction involved in these movies than we realize. In fact, there are already primitive cyborgs walking among us.


Dr. Kevin Warwick is the world’s leading expert in Cybernetics and is also recognized as the world’s first cyborg. This was accomplished through a series of experiments known as Project Cyborg. According to Dr. Warwick’s website:

What happens when a man is merged with a computer? This is the question that Professor Kevin Warwick and his team at the department of Cybernetics, University of Reading intend to answer with “Project Cyborg”. On Monday 24th August 1998, at 4:00pm, Professor Kevin Warwick underwent an operation to surgically implant a silicon chip transponder in his forearm. … This experiment allowed a computer to monitor Kevin Warwick as he moved through halls and offices of the Department of Cybernetics at the University of Reading, using a unique identifying signal emitted by the implanted chip. He could operate doors, lights, heaters and other computers without lifting a finger.[71]


This microchip utilized radio frequency identification technology (RFID). RFID microchips emit a radio signal which can be received at a distance and interpreted by other devices commonly referred to as “readers” or “sniffers.” Although RFID chips are becoming commonplace today, they were revolutionary in 1998. The experiment was successful, and Dr. Warwick concluded, “The chip implant technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies. The implant could carry all sorts of information about a person, from Access and Visa details to your National Insurance number, blood type, medical records etc., with the data being updated where necessary.”[72]


Dr. Warwick expanded his experiments to include bi-directional sensory input:

On the 14th of March 2002 a one hundred electrode array was surgically implanted into the median nerve fibres of the left arm of Professor Kevin Warwick. … Professor Warwick was able to control an electric wheelchair and an intelligent artificial hand, developed by Dr Peter Kyberd, using the neural interface. In addition to being able to measure the nerve signals transmitted along the nerve fibres in Professor Warwck’s left arm, the implant was also able to create artificial sensation by stimluating via individual electrodes within the array. This bi-directional functionality was demonstrated with the aid of Kevin’s wife Irena and a second, less complex implant connecting to her nervous system.[73]


Other cyborgs include Rob Spence. Having lost his eye in a shooting accident, Rob Spence replaced it with a prosthetic eye equipped with a camera that is capable of transmitting wirelessly. Similarly, a 2013 Mother Nature Network article titled “7 real-life human cyborgs” reports:

Neil Harbisson was born with achromatopsia, or extreme colorblindness … How is this possible? Harbisson is equipped with a specialized electronic eye, or eyeborg, which renders perceived colors as sounds on the musical scale. In other words, his device allows him to “hear” color. He has become so adapted to this device that his brain has formed new neural pathways that allow him to develop an advanced kind of perception. … After a pair of horrific accidents, Jens Naumann was struck blind in both eyes, but he never gave up hope that he would someday see again. That dream became a reality when, in 2002, Naumann became the first person in the world to receive an artificial vision system. His electronic eye is connected directly to his visual cortex through brain implants. Unlike with other cyborg implants, which translate visual information into another sense such as sound or touch, Naumann actually “sees” the world. Though it has its limits (he can only vaguely see lines and shapes), his vision has been technically restored.[74]


Still other cyborgs include Nigel Ackland who controls a robotic forearm with remarkable precision. “He can independently move each of his five fingers to grip delicate objects, or even pour a liquid into a glass.”[75] And Jesse Sullivan who “was equipped with a bionic limb, connected through a nerve-muscle graft. Not only can Sullivan control his new limb with his mind, he can also feel hot, cold, and the amount of pressure his grip is applying.”[76]


Technologies designed to augment the human body offer great promise for those with physical deficiencies. However, the end goal far surpasses aiding the handicapped. Ultimately, the greatest motivating factor behind this research is the drive to become gods. Technology promises mankind the opportunity to transcend itself. Artificial intelligence engineer, Chairman of the Board of the OpenCog Foundation, CEO of Biomind LLC, Vice Chair of Humanity+, and former Director of Research for Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Dr. Ben Goertzel, said, “Eventually we’re going to transcend humanity. Eventually we’re going to go beyond the whole way of thinking, feeling, existing, and relating that constitutes humanity.”[77] Likewise, in an interview with Wesley Smith, Dr. Leon Kass said:

All of the boundaries are up for grabs. All of the boundaries that have defined us as human beings, boundaries between a human being and an animal and between a human being and a super human being or a god. The boundaries of life, the boundaries of death.[78]

Additionally, in his book Artilect Wars, Dr. Hugo de Garis writes:

It would be nice to be an artilect, a god, a supremely powerful omnipotent being. I could be such a creature by late 21st century and beyond. It’s possible. It’s not an unattainable dream. … All I can do here is attempt to convey some measure of the strength of “religious” feeling that I and other Cosmists will make public this century.[79]

He goes on to say, “The prospect of building godlike creatures fills me with a sense of religious awe that goes to the very depth of my soul and motivates me powerfully to continue, despite the possible horrible negative consequences.”[80] Dr. Hugo de Garis also concludes the documentary Building Gods with the statement, “Can you sort of sense a kind of almost like religious awe, almost? We could build gods if we wanted to.”[81]


In his book The Singularity Is Near, Dr. Ray Kurzweil writes:

Our version 1.0 biological bodies are … frail and subject to a myriad of failure modes. … The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations. … We will gain power over our fates. Our mortality will be in our own hands [and] the nonbiological portion of our intelligence will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than unaided human intelligence.[82]

Furthermore, Mark Pesche has said:

Men die, planets die, even stars die. We know all this. Because we know it, we seek something more—a transcendence of transience, translation to incorruptible form. An escape if you will, a stop to the wheel. We seek, therefore, to bless ourselves with perfect knowledge and perfect will; To become as gods, take the universe in hand, and transform it in our image—for our own delight. As it is on Earth, so it shall be in the heavens. The inevitable result of incredible improbability, the arrow of evolution is lipping us into the transhuman – an apotheosis to reason, salvation – attained by good works.[83]

Also, in an article for H+ Magazine titled “Transhumanism as a bridge to Divinity,” futurist, Belinda Silbert, writes, “What then is humanity? I would posit the opinion that humanity is the seed of all potential that could flower into what we have painted as Divinity. The lines will blur. The true revelation will be that Human and Divine are one and the same.”[84]


Perhaps most revealing of all is founder and Chairman of the X Prize Foundation and co-founder of the Singularity University, Dr. Peter Diamandis’, statement:

And we will become god-like. People don’t like to hear that, but we in terms of omniscience—being able to know anything, plugging your brain into Google. You know, omnipotent—being able to control something on the other side of the planet. Omnipresent—being able to know the thoughts of somebody in Japan or Hawaii or wherever it might be at any time.[85]


The drive to become a god undergirds the philosophy of transhumanism. Not every scientist who is researching these technologies share in these aspirations. Most scientists are merely curious. However, the prominent transhumanist scientists and philosophers who are promoting and defining these technologies have a deeply religious devotion to seeing mankind ascend to the throne of God.


Understand that when transhumanists use the term “god,” they are employing a pagan understanding of the title. Pagan gods were merely elevated humans. They possessed the same desires and the same character flaws. None of these gods were unlimited in their abilities.*[86] Rather, because pagan deities possessed superhuman abilities and immortality, they were, by definition, gods. This is a far cry from the Christian definition of “God.” To the Christian, “God” refers to a singular, uncaused being, who designed and created all things, and who is perfect in His moral character. The Christian God is not merely an enhanced human. The Christian God actively works to sustain all of creation (Col. 1:16–17). The Christian God is omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and holy. There is none who is His equal. Man can never become or supersede this God.


The Humanist understanding of what constitutes “God” is deeply flawed and extremely limited. As such, he has fooled himself into believing that he can become a god. In the documentary TechnoCalypse, physicist, Dr. Richard Seed—who is most known for forcing a national debate on human cloning in the 1990s—made the statement, “We are going to become God, period. If you do not like it, get off. You do not have to contribute, you do not have to participate but if you are going to interfere with me becoming a god, you’re going to have trouble. There’ll be warfare.”[87]


Ultimately, pursuit of the transhumanist technological singularity is a quest to realize Satan’s promise, “You will be like God” (Gen. 3:5). It offers man everything that God offered man apart from God’s requirements. It promises that through technology, man can overcome the curse of sin on his own terms, apart from repentance. In fact, Dr. Ray Kurzweil has said, “If you look at the implications of my ideas, they do have a resonance with some traditional religious ideas—the idea of a profound transformation in the future, eternal life, bringing back the dead.”[88] It promises that through technology, man can become his own savior. In essence, this is a denial of Jesus as the Christ—as Messiah. Recall that this is one of the ways in which we can identify the spirit of antichrist (1 John 2:22). These evangelists preach that through technology, man can accomplish greater things than he can imagine without submitting his will to God. This undermines the authority of the Word of God. Recall that this, too, is one of the ways in which we can identify the spirit of antichrist (1 John 5:10–12).


The transhumanist agenda is the ultimate display of pride and arrogance. This is also a characteristic of the spirit of antichrist. Transhumanism denies the gospel message and is rooted in self-love, covetousness, pride, boasting, blasphemy, resisting of the truth, ungratefulness, etc. These are all characteristics of the spirit of antichrist. Clearly, the true spirit behind the technological singularity is the spirit of antichrist.


  1. “Executive Order 13521 of November 24, 2009: Establishing the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues” 62,671.
  2. Kass, Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity, 4.
  3. “Transhumanism is a class of philosophies of life that seek the continuation and acceleration of the evolution of intelligent life beyond its currently human form and human limitations by means of science and technology, guided by life-promoting principles and values.” (Max More 1990)” (“Transhumanist FAQ.”)
  4. Posthumanism is a term with five definitions: 1. Antihumanism: a term applied to a number of thinkers opposed to the project of philosophical anthropology. 2. Cultural posthumanism: a cultural direction which strives to move beyond archaic concepts of “human nature” to develop ones which constantly adapt to contemporary technoscientific knowledge.[1] 3. Philosophical posthumanism: a philosophical direction which is critical of the foundational assumptions of Renaissance humanism and its legacy.[2] 4. Transhumanism: an ideology and movement which seeks to develop and make available technologies that eliminate aging and greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities, in order to achieve a “posthuman future”.[3] 5. Posthuman condition: the deconstruction of the human condition by critical theorists.[4] (Wikipedia, “Posthumanism.”) (([1] Badmington, Neil. Posthumanism (Readers in Cultural Criticism). Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. [2] Esposito, Roberto. Politics and human nature. doi:10.1080/0969725X.2011.621222. Accessed June 6, 2013. [3] Bostrom, Nick. A history of transhumanist thought. Accessed February 21, 2006. [4] Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. University Of Chicago Press, 1999.))
  5. Wikipedia, “Posthumanism.”
  6. Bradley Onishi, “Information, Bodies, and Heidegger: Tracing Visions of the Posthuman,” Sophia 50/1 (2011), 101-12, Source: Ferrando, “Posthumanism.”
  7. “Transhumanism.”
  8. “Transhumanist FAQ,” Humanity+.
  9. Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near, “Cover Flap.”
  10. Transcendent Man.
  11. Singularity Symposium, “What is the best definition of Singularity?”
  12. Ibid.
  13. Transcendent Man.
  14. Singularity Symposium, “What is the best definition of Singularity?”
  15. Transcendent Man.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Singularity Symposium, “What is the best definition of Singularity?”
  18. Irving Good, “Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine,” Advances in Computers 6 (1965): 31–88, Source: Nick Bostrom, “The Future of Humanity,” New Waves in Philosophy of Technology, (Originally Circulated 2007), Jan-Kyrre Berg Olsen, Evan Selinger, and Soren Riis, eds. (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2009), 186–216, Reprinted in Geopolitics, History, and International Relations 1, no. 2 (2009): 41–78, Source: Nick Bostrom’s Homepage, “The Future of Humanity.”
  19. Vinge, “The Coming Technological Singularity,” “Abstract.”
  20. “Post-human I think will be post-biological. By that I mean that it will be a gradual process. There won’t be any sudden transition to a different form. I think we’ll gradually integrate more and more technology into our bodies. We’ll be replacing our organs with more efficient organs. We’ll gradually replace this neural tissue because it dies off after a while. It’s easily subjected to chemical damage. So eventually I think we’ll replace our brain cells with essentially computerized parts. It will be much more efficient, much more powerful.” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  21. There is significant debate regarding what constitutes humanity. In the documentary TechnoCalypse, Dr. Ray Kurzweil says, “Well, it’s a philosophical issue as to whether this is still human. In my mind it’s definitely going beyond biology. But I don’t define human as just biological. I mean, we’ve already taken steps beyond biology. There’s not a single organ in the human body, including regions of the brain, where we are not already creating substitutes, or extensions, or augmentations. So if somebody has an artificial pancreas, are they not human? If they have a neural implant in their brain, are they not human? How about two neural implants? Or maybe you can have up to ten then you’re human, but eleven, you’re not human anymore. If you have these nanobots—blood-sized robots in the brain that actually have computers interacting with your biological neurons—is that still a human? Well one nanobot’s probably okay. How about five hundred million nanobots?” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “Technocalypse.”)
  22. Philosopher and ethnopharmacologist Terence McKenna notes, “Obviously, if we’re experiencing more change now in a year than we previously experienced in a thousand years, we can propagate that trend into the future and see that a day will come when we will experience more change in an hour than we have experienced in the past twenty, thirty thousand years. A situation like that is unimaginable, so we call it a singularity—a place where the normal rules of modeling break down.” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  23. Kaku, “Big Think Interview with Michio Kaku.”
  24. Kanellos, “New life for Moore’s Law.”
  25. “Overall Technology Roadmap Characteristics.”
  26. Kaku, “Big Think Interview with Michio Kaku.”
  27. Kanellos, “New life for Moore’s Law.”
  28. Neven, “Launching the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab.”
  29. Poeter, “IBM Says It’s ‘On the Cusp’ of Building a Quantum Computer.”
  30. Lafrance, “The U.S. Army Says It Can Teleport Quantum Data Now, Too.”
  31. Mearian, “Harvard stores 70 billion books using DNA.”
  32. Dr. Ray Kurzweil says, “It’s a conservative statement to say that by 2025, we’ll be able to look inside your brain, see everything that’s going on—all the interneural connections, all the synaptic clefts, all the neural transmitter strings—and create a huge database, and copy down every salient detail, and then re-instantiate that information in a neural computer of sufficient capacity, and create basically a copy of the thinking process that takes place in your brain. Now that’s one scenario, but it’s really an existence proof to show that we can tap the secrets of intelligence that exist in, let’s say, the human brain. Once we’ve scanned that information, we can also understand it, see how it’s organized, improve on it. We can extend it. We can make its memory a thousand times bigger. We can make it faster. We can expand the perceptual capabilities.” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  33. Transcendent Man.
  34. Rutkin, “IBM Scientists Show Blueprints for Brainlike Computing.”
  35. Ibid.
  36. Hornyak, “Fujitsu supercomputer simulates 1 second of brain activity.”
  37. Ibid.
  38. Watson, “Eric Schmidt: Google AI Indistinguishable from Humans Within a Decade.”
  39. Hugo de Garis, Interview by Adam Ford after the Singularity Summit in Australia, 2010, Source: Adam Ford, “Hugo de Garis interview.”
  40. de Garis, The Artilect War, 11–16.
  41. “The more I think about the longer-term significance of artilect building, the more profoundly I feel I am a Cosmist. But my mood swings. I will lie awake at night thinking rationally about the cosmic grandeur of Cosmism, about what these god-like artilects could do, and I feel the awe. Hours later I will wake up in a sweat, having been jolted out of a nightmare. I see in vivid scenes the deaths of my descendants in about a century or so, at the hands of the artilects, who have become so superior to humans that they see us as vermin. The emotional reality and horror of it shake me. Normally I sleep rather soundly, so I don’t remember many dreams, but this nightmare is recurrent, and so horrible in emotional terms that it is capable of waking me, despite my heavy sleep.” (de Garis, The Artilect War, 84.)
  42. Transcendent Man.
  43. de Garis, The Artilect War, 20–21.
  44. Ibid, 12–13.
  45. Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near, 9.
  46. Ray Kurzweil, “Ray Kurzweil Explores the Next Phase of Virtual Reality.”
  47. Big Think, “Ray Kurzweil: After the Singularity.”
  48. Ray Kurzweil, “Ray Kurzweil: Thinking Through the Great Change Epochs.”
  49. Grossman, “2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal.”
  50. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Technology.”
  51. Big Think, “Ray Kurzweil: After the Singularity.”
  52. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Avatar Project Milestones.”
  53. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Technology.”
  54. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Avatar Project Milestones.”
  55. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Technology.”
  56. Dr. Max More says, “A great number of people who I refer to as biological fundamentalists have a great fear of moving outside their biology—moving into other bodies, other forms for transport. These people have a lot of, of commitment, a lot of mythology, a lot of tradition and history attached to their bodies—our sacred bodies, the house of our soul.” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  57. In speaking about this post-human prospect, Terrence McKenna refers to the human body as “monkey meat,” “Well that is the most tricky question. Are we going to retain the monkey meat? Are we going to hang onto the body, and through the body have a connection to the rest of animal nature? Or are we going to become disembodied streams of electrons moving in virtual realities that are contained entirely in circuitry? I think this will probably go both ways. There will be fundamentalists who want nothing to do with technological transformation, and there will be utopians who won’t be able to get enough of it. This is probably the moral frontier where we each personally must make a stand. How much of the new technology and its reality redefining qualities do we want to take into our own lives?” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  58. Dr. Natasha Vita-More says, “We will have cyborg bodies. We will have augmented bodies. We will auto-morph ourselves into whatever vehicle keeps us in existence for the longest period of time with the most pleasure, the least pain, and the most ease—the most elegance.” (Frank Theys, TechnoCalyps, (DVD, Votnik, 2006), Source: TheDejavu434, “TechnoCalyps.”)
  59. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Avatar Project Milestones.”
  60. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Technology.”
  61. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Avatar Project Milestones.”
  62. 2045 Strategic Social Initiative, “Technology.”
  63. “Avatar.”
  64. Avatar, http://www.avatarmovie.com.
  65. Gamer, http://www.gamerthemovie.com.
  66. Surrogates, http://www.surrogatesmovie.co.uk.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Superman Man of Steel, http://manofsteel.warnerbros.com/index.html?home.
  69. Transcendence, http://www.transcendencemovie.com.
  70. As an example, consider the article “Top 10 ‘Star Trek’ Technologies That Actually Came True.” (Briggs, “Top 10 ‘Star Trek’ Technologies That Actually Came True.”)
  71. Professor Kevin Warwick, “Project Cyborg 1.0.”
  72. Ibid.
  73. Professor Kevin Warwick, “Project Cyborg 2.0.”
  74. Nelson, “7 real-life human cyborgs.”
  75. Ibid.
  76. Ibid.
  77. Transcendent Man.
  78. Leon Kass, Source: Wesley Smith, “A Conversation with Leon Kass: Science Doesn’t Trump All,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 20, 2002, Source: Smith, “Stupider and Worse?”
  79. de Garis, The Artilect War, 98.
  80. Horn, Forbidden Gates, 125.
  81. Ken Gumbs, Building Gods, (DVD, 2008), Source: DigPhilosophy, “Building Gods Documentary – Transhumanism, Artificial intelligence and nanotechnology.”
  82. Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near, 9.
  83. Snyder, “Transhumanists: Superhuman Powers & Life Extension Tech Will Allow Us To Become Like God.”
  84. Silbert, “Transhumansim as a Bridge to Divinity.”
  85. Transcendent Man.
  86. Recently, there has been a surge of movies which emphasize the mortal and merely supra-human nature of “the gods.” Perhaps the clearest examples are Clash of the Titans and Wrath of the Titans.
  87. baxteru, “Human Cloning Researcher Richard Seed – When the Shift Hits the Fan.”
  88. Transcendent Man.

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